Because knowledge is actively constructed, learning is presented as a process of active discovery. The role of the instructor is not to drill knowledge into students through consistent repetition, or to goad them into learning through carefully employed rewards and punishments. Rather, the role of the teacher is to facilitate discovery by providing the necessary resources and by guiding learners as they attempt to assimilate new knowledge to old and to modify the old to accommodate the new.
Teachers must thus take into account the knowledge that the learner currently possesses when deciding how to construct the curriculum and how to present, sequence, and structure new material. Unlike behaviorist learning theory, where learners are thought to be motivated by extrinsic factors such as rewards and punishment, cognitive learning theory sees motivation as largely intrinsic.
Because it involves significant restructuring of existing cognitive structures, successful learning requires a major personal investment on the part of the learner Perry , Learners must face up to the limitations of their existing knowledge and accept the need to modify or abandon existing beliefs. Without some kind of internal drive on the part of the learner to do so, external rewards and punishments such as grades are unlikely to be sufficient.
Cognitivist teaching methods aim to assist students in assimilating new information to existing knowledge, and enabling them to make the appropriate modifications to their existing intellectual framework to accommodate that information. For instance, asking students to explain new material in their own words can assist them in assimilating it by forcing them to re-express the new ideas in their existing vocabulary.
Cognitive-Constructivist Psychotherapy with Children and Adolescents
Likewise, providing students with sets of questions to structure their reading makes it easier for them to relate it to previous material by highlighting certain parts and to accommodate the new material by providing a clear organizational structure. Because learning is largely self-motivated in the cognitivist framework, cognitivists such as A. Brown and J. Ferrara have also suggested methods which require students to monitor their own learning.
For instance, the use of ungraded tests and study questions enables students to monitor their own understanding of the material. Other methods that have been suggested include the use of learning journals by students to monitor progress, to highlight any recurring difficulties, and to analyze study habits. The most influential exponent of cognitivism was Swiss child psychologist Jean Piaget. Piaget rejected the idea that learning was the passive assimilation of given knowledge.
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Instead, he proposed that learning is a dynamic process comprising successive stages of adaption to reality during which learners actively construct knowledge by creating and testing their own theories of the world , 8. Equilibration takes place through a process of adaption; that is, assimilation of new information to existing cognitive structures and the accommodation of that information through the formation of new cognitive structures.
For example, learners who already have the cognitive structures necessary to solve percentage problems in mathematics will have some of the structures necessary to solve time-rate-distance problems, but they will need to modify their existing structures to accommodate the newly acquired information to solve the new type of problem. Thus, learners adapt and develop by assimilating and accommodating new information into existing cognitive structures.
Piaget suggested that there are four main stages in the cognitive development of children. In the first two years, children pass through a sensorimotor stage during which they progress from cognitive structures dominated by instinctual drives and undifferentiated emotions to more organized systems of concrete concepts, differentiated emotions, and their first external affective fixations.
The second stage of development lasts until around seven years of age. Children begin to use language to make sense of reality. They learn to classify objects using different criteria and to manipulate numbers. From the ages of seven to twelve years, children begin to develop logic, although they can only perform logical operations on concrete objects and events.
In adolescence, children enter the formal operational stage, which continues throughout the rest of their lives. Adolescent children develop the ability to perform abstract intellectual operations, and reach affective and intellectual maturity. They learn how to formulate and test abstract hypotheses without referring to concrete objects. Although the theory is not now as widely accepted, it has had a significant influence on later theories of cognitive development.
For instance, the idea of adaption through assimilation and accommodation is still widely accepted. William G. This book presents an integrative view, incorporating cognitive and constructivist orientations in reference to theory and combining clinical psychology with developmental Cognitive-Constructivist Psychotherapy with Children and Adolescents describes cognitive-constructivist therapy with children and adolescents as a creative process, combining various techniques.
This book presents an integrative view, incorporating cognitive and constructivist orientations in reference to theory and combining clinical psychology with developmental psychology in reference to child therapy.
It presents an integration of the designed, goal-directed processes of decision-making in treating children, with flexible, creative modes of intervention. This volume is organized in three parts: - Theory: reviewing the literature and building a theoretical foundation; - Intervention model: offering guidelines for decision-making while designing the intervention process and proposing a self-control intervention model; and, - Clinical illustrations: discussing specific childhood disorders spanning different cognitive stages and encompassing different problem areas, illustrating through case studies.
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