We have homelessness in Europe, obviously, but it was the sheer volume of it in the USA that made me so exceptionally sad. The number of homeless people in the US was indeed shocking to me when I lived there.
Just as was the fact that nobody paid attention to a man that I kept seeing at the underground station, and that was evidently either sick or drunk. I had to call the police once as I thought he may be dead. Perhaps China is a no no for me? And India… I am going there in October. That will be a challenge! I agree, Ali. IndianaJo features some links e. Amazon, Bluehost and Prosecco tours that provide a commission to me if you buy through these links.
There is no extra cost to you but what I earn means I can keep offering travel advice for free. Thank you for supporting me. Primary Menu Search. Article written by Jo Fitzsimons Jo Fitzsimons is a freelance travel writer who has visited over 60 countries. Jo Fitzsimons 4 October, at pm Permalink Reply.
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Thanks for the recommendation — sounds like a great book. Hassan 14 April, at pm Permalink Reply. Jo Fitzsimons 15 May, at pm Permalink Reply. Azaam Akram 7 October, at am Permalink Reply. Jo Fitzsimons 15 November, at pm Permalink Reply. Ha ha. Japan is a great place for technology culture shock. Have a great trip.
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Jo Fitzsimons 14 January, at am Permalink Reply. Brilliant post Jo! Jo Fitzsimons 7 October, at am Permalink Reply. Annika 21 September, at am Permalink Reply. Claudia 16 September, at pm Permalink Reply.
Ali Hutcheson 16 September, at pm Permalink Reply. Jo Fitzsimons 16 September, at pm Permalink Reply. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. Terms and Conditions Privacy. When did cookies get so boring? I use them on here. Chapter 11 discusses the major differences and similarities between the English and French corpora, as well as those between the right and left wing newspapers.
Finally, Chapter 12 concludes the thesis, summarising the results of the main findings and suggesting directions for further research. Consequently, this chapter is conceptually divided into two main parts: how sexist language is theorised within structuralist and poststructuralist linguistics.
I begin with how second wave feminist linguists analysed sexist language from a structuralist perspective, before looking at poststructuralist approaches, which I have separated into third wave and queer. Using a wave narrative implies a unified movement, with distinct projects. It also implies a chronological movement, and thus a kind of forward progression.
In reality, feminism has been full of splinter groups. Theories that are popular in one wave are not necessarily new, but have been bubbling away on the sidelines of other waves Evans and Chamberlain , p. Nonetheless, Evans and Chamberlain , p. I will therefore follow tradition and continue with a waves metaphor. The following paragraphs give a brief chronological description of the waves, bearing in mind they do not conform to a 'neat progressive notion of history' Evans and Chamberlain , p.
Later, in each relevant part, I explain how each wave has influence research on language and gender. First wave feminism from the late 19th century to the early 20th describes the sustained political movement in the West for political equality for women, including the right to vote. Second wave feminism roughly corresponds to the second half of the 20th century, and began with Simone de Beauvoir's Second Sex in , and Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique in The personal became political, and second wave feminists fought for rights such as universally available contraception, abortion, and equal pay.
Second wave feminism has been frequently criticised for being exclusionary, in that it was essentially a white, middle class movement that ignored minorities and the working class. Third wave feminism 'surged' around the end of the 20th century, but contrary to the second wave, it was a more diffuse movement with no central political goal Evans and Chamberlain , p. In reaction to criticisms against second wave feminism, third wave 'aspir[ed] to greater inclusivity, foregrounding queer and non-white issues in an attempt to move away from white middle-class hegemony' Baumgardner and Richards , cited in Evans and Chamberlain , p.
Judith Butler's notion of gender as a fluid performance, rather than as an innate stable identity came to the forefront, and terms that had been rejected as sexist by the second wave, were reclaimed by the third e. General agreement seems to be that it began in the first decade of the 21st century and is associated with on-line activism, and movements such as SlutWalk and the Everyday Sexism project. Moreover, 'a commitment to intersectionality, an embrace of humour and scepticism of feminist intellectualism are all mentioned as distinctively fourth wave' Cochrane , cited in Dean and Aune , p.
However, as far as I am aware, fourth wave feminism has not had much any?
Therefore, I do not discuss fourth wave any further in this thesis. Queer is not a feminist movement as such, although the two movements are not necessarily incompatible e. The queer movement evolved from a reaction to the American gay and lesbian rights movement in the s and 80s. Its starting point was sexuality rather than gender per se. In the same way that third wave feminism questioned the concept of 'woman' as a coherent stable identity, queer questioned the coherence of an identity based on sexuality Motschenbacher and Stegu , p.
Research on sexist linguistic structures emerged from second wave feminism, and with the rise of the third wave, has been marginalised over the past few decades Motschenbacher A move towards poststructuralist notions of the performative nature of language has meant that studies of sexism in language have been seen as 'outdated and archaic' Mills , p. However, in the same way that critical engagement with the waves metaphor can be used to stress the continuity of feminist ideas, this chapter argues that second wave structuralist analyses of sexist structures can be successfully combined with third wave and queer poststructuralist approaches in order to revitalise the research on sexism in language.
Sexism usually refers to the system of attitudes, beliefs and stereotypes that one sex usually males are superior to another sex usually females. Biological sex is the basis for the presumed superiority of men over women. In this chapter I look at how the ideology of sexism materialises in linguistic structures and semantics. According to a framework developed by social psychologists Glick and Fiske , sexism is ambivalent: it can be divided into hostile sexism and benevolent sexism.
Hostile sexism is instances of overt negative stereotyping, for example, that girls are not as good at science as boys, or that fathers are less important than mothers. Benevolent sexism, on the other hand, may be perceived by some as positive, for example a man holding a door open for a woman, or offering to carry a heavy object for her. However, when he would not do the same thing for another man, this modern-day chivalry is an instance of benevolent sexism, which is based on the idea that women are weaker than men, and so need men's protection and help.
Both hostile and benevolent sexism are two sides of the same coin, which serve to mutually reinforce traditional gender roles, and therefore sexism Glick and Fiske Sexism is difficult to define because there is no uniform agreement on exactly what behaviour, attitudes, words, or discourses actually constitute sexism Mills and Mullany , p. People may disagree as to whether an action, word, comment or joke is sexist, depending on the circumstance and people involved.
In a study of sexist jokes by Sunderland, she found that multiple readings of the jokes were made, and that, despite the obviously sexist nature of the jokes, feminist readers were able to simultaneously 'recognise, cognitively deal with, perhaps rationalise, and perhaps be amused by these contradictions' Sunderland , p. In this chapter I will tease out the differences between these approaches.
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However, there is often a considerable amount of overlap between them, and they should not be seen as simply chronological, but as potentially complementary Mills b. Structuralism has its origins in linguistics, and is generally said to have started with Ferdinand de Saussure and the posthumous publication of his Course in General Linguistics in Saussure saw language as a static system of interconnected units, and modelled language in purely linguistic terms, free of psychology, sociology, or anthropology. The basis of structuralist linguistics is the sign. A sign has two parts, the signifier e.
Within this system a sign can only be understood by its contrast with other signs. Saussure's work was innovative because it drew attention to the structuralist significance of binary oppositions, which was then used in other approaches such as componential analysis, which relies upon binarity. Componential analysis studies the semantic properties of words based on their binary features.
Here we see again the idea of male-as-norm where woman is categorised as [— male]. According to this analysis, the masculine is the 'unmarked' category see part 2. Componential analysis is also unable to grasp the contextual meaning of a gendered form, for example calling an adult woman a girl [— male] [— mature] may be used as either a marker of solidarity e. In grammatically gendered languages like French, the masculine and feminine only make sense in contrast to each other. If the feminine grammatical gender disappeared, the masculine would not exist either, as it would have nothing to define itself against.
Structuralist linguistics is based on binary categories, which can only be understood in opposition to each other see part 2. Second wave feminism has a wide range of feminist intellectual underpinnings, which includes liberal feminism, cultural feminism, and radical feminism Bucholtz , p.
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However, '[w]hat unifies these forms of second-wave feminism is a focus on gender difference as the foundation of feminist thinking' Bucholtz , p. Thus, binarity is part of what characterises second wave feminism. The Dominance perspective, which emerged from radical feminism, was popular in the English-speaking world in the late 70s and early 80s West and Zimmerman ; Spender ; Fishman before losing ground to other, more context- sensitive, third wave models.
On the other hand, one aspect of the Dominance model sexism in language has never gone out of fashion in the French-speaking world Michard ; Houdebine ; Michard ; Michard ; Houdebine ; Yaguello The Dominance approach has a clearly political motivation and focuses on how women are dominated in and through language. Early studies seemed to show how men interrupted women more, or how men ignored women's conversational topics and imposed their own West and Zimmerman ; Fishman ; Zimmerman and West However, studies such as these have been criticised for not taking other factors into account, for instance, status hierarchy or cultural differences in overlapping talk, as well as what counts as an interruption Kitzinger The Dominance model implies that women are always in a powerless position, and that, inversely, men are always in a powerful position.
All of the 3Ds adopt an essentialist vision of gender, which often 'position[s] women's experiences […] as universally shared' Bucholtz , p. The focus for feminist linguists studying sexism in language from a dominance perspective has been on three main areas: 1 female invisibility in language, for example the masculine generic, or words such as Mankind; 2 asymmetrical gender-marking, for instance 'lady doctor' when gender is not relevant or titles for women and; 3 semantic derogation.
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Thus, sexism is to be located in isolated words lexical sexism e. A perennial issue in French relating to women's linguistic invisibility has been how, and whether, to feminise job titles, beginning in the s and continuing today Elmiger ; Dister and Moreau ; van Compernolle ; Houdebine ; Houdebine-Gravaud In a grammatically gendered language like French, the masculine is viewed as the generic form, and so able to refer to any gender.
As a point of comparison, in German, the usual terms are sprachliche Gleichstellung [linguistic equality], Gleichbehandlung [equal treatment] or nichtsexistische Sprache [non-sexist language], and only very rarely Feminisierung [feminisation] Elmiger , p. Cameron has discussed the gender specification of the high profile architect Zaha Hadid in the media, and posited that although referring to her gender could be seen as sexist, it also raises the visibility of women, highlighting her achievements in a male dominated field Cameron a.